Building Codes for Handrail and Guard Railings
Prior to using any railing products, it is incumbent on designers, fabricators and installers to make themselves familiar with local building codes that apply to their applications.
Most municipalities and local code bodies do not write code — they adopt codes prepared by various code bodies. Historically, model codes were prepared by code bodies such as the Building Officials Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), the Council of American Building Officials (CABO), the International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO), and the Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). Others codes often referred to include the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), and the Americans With Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG).
Prior to 2000, BOCA, SBCCI and ICBO each prepared their own model codes that were regionally applied. In 1999, these three organizations began to work together to prepare a unified code under the auspices of the International Code Council (ICC). The first set of I Codes were published in 2000 and included the International Residential Code (IRC) and the International Building Code (IBC). Published on a three year cycle, the IRC and IBC model codes have since been adopted by states throughout the country.
Consult your local authorities to see what codes apply to your project.
The NFPA has chosen to enter the building code arena. Presently no jurisdiction has adopted NFPA 5000 but elements of NFPA 5000 are now part of NFPA 101.
Handrail and Guardrail
Handrails are in place to provide guidance while the purpose of a guardrail is to prevent accidental falls.
Guards are generally required for ramps, stairs or landings above 30″. The height will vary depending on the code. The IBC requires a guard to be 42″ in height. Handrails are located between 34″ and 38″ and have dimensional limitations for grasp-ability. As such, if a 42″ guardrail is called for on a stair or ramp, it will also require a secondary handrail at the appropriate height. A guard top rail that is not used as a handrail would not have a grasp-ability size limitation.
Guards also have opening limitations to consider. The most common requirement is that no opening be large enough to allow a 4″ sphere to pass.
While a handrail may need to be installed on stairs less than 30″ high, it does not have to meet the opening limitations required of guardrails. This is often being misinterpreted by local inspectors who have insisted on applying guard requirements to these applications.
Refer to the accessibility page regarding similar height standards on accessible railing and the Access Board’s recommendation for railing for children.
The Ladder Effect
The published 2000 IRC stated that guardrails shall not be constructed with horizontal members or other ornamental pattern that results in a ladder effect. The ladder effect has never been a part of the IBC.
The ladder effect was removed from the IRC during the 2001 code cycle. The change was noted in the 2001 IRC supplement and the current 2003 IRC contains no reference to the ladder effect.
Many local code inspectors are not aware of the 2001 change and may reject guard-railings with infills they interpret as creating a ladder effect.
Always check with local authorities as they may have made their codes more restrictive than the model codes.